Adjectives are words that are used to tell us what attribute (quality, quantity or characteristic) a noun (someone or something) has. They can be used to describe feelings, appearance or preferences.
Example: good, bad, many, few, long, silly.
An adjective can come before a noun or after a noun.
✅I like your new shoes. (adjective + noun)
✅Your shoes are new. ( noun + adjective)
✅They are good friends. (adjective + noun)
Commonly used adjectives
Some adjectives are used more than others. Here are a few commonly used adjectives:
- good, bad, new, old, first, last, long, short, big, small, great, little, big, high, different, large, next, early, young, important, few, same, able.
Two or more adjectives
General opinion adjectives
✅ She’s a good/great/wonderful/amazing/brilliant/bad/dreadful singer.
Specific opinion adjectives
🍔 Adjectives used to describe food:
⛅Adjectives can be used to describe the weather:
🏡Adjectives used to describe furniture or houses:
🐈Adjectives used to describe people or animals:
- put a general adjective in front of a specific adjective,
✅A good comfortable sofa.
✅A nice sunny day.
- put an opinion adjective in front of a descriptive adjective.
✅A nice red dress.
✅A silly old man.
Sometimes three or more adjectives are placed in front of a noun. It is fairly unusual.
✅A lovely handsome young boy.
When three or more adjectives are used, we should use them in this order:
General opinion > Specific opinion > Size > Shape > Age > Colour > Nationality >Material
Adjectives in front of nouns
While some adjectives can be used both before and after nouns, the following adjectives can be used only before nouns:
Comparative and superlative adjectives
- 1️⃣They typically end in ‘er’ and are often followed by the word ‘than’.
✅A tiger is bigger than a dog.
✅A rocket is faster than an aeroplane.
✅Peter is older than his sister.
- 2️⃣If the noun used to compare the first noun to is clear from the context, it can be omitted.
✅One year ago, Peter and John were the same height. Now, Peter is taller.
✅I’m feeling more excited.
✅We need a bigger TV.
- 3️⃣To say that something is changing or has changed, you can use two comparative adjectives and join them with the conjunction and.
✅His body became stronger and stronger.
✅They were becoming more and more excited.
✅Instead of slowing down, she was running faster and faster.
- 4️⃣To show that one thing depends on another, we often use ‘the’ with two comparative adjectives.
✅The bigger the better.
✅The more you exercise, the stronger you become.
✅The further they went, the colder it got.
- 1️⃣We place the just before a superlative adjective.
✅This is the fastest car.
✅Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.
✅It’s the best film I have ever seen.
✅Jane is the youngest child in the class.
How to form comparative and superlative adjectives
- 1️⃣We usually add –er and –est to one-syllable words to make comparatives and superlatives.
- 2️⃣If an adjective ends in –e, we add –r or –st.
- 3️⃣If an adjective ends in a vowel and a consonant, we double the consonant.
- 4️⃣If an adjective ends in a consonant and –y, we change –y to –i and add –er or –est.
- 5️⃣We use more and most to make comparatives and superlatives for most two-syllable adjectives and all adjectives with three or more syllables.
- 6️⃣However, with these common two-syllable adjectives, you can either add –er/–r and –est/–st or use more and most.
The adjectives good, bad and far have irregular comparatives and superlatives.
|We usually add –er and –est to one-syllable words to make comparatives and superlatives.|
|If an adjective ends in a vowel and a consonant, we double the consonant.|
|If an adjective ends in a consonant and –y, we change –y to –i and add –er or –est.|
|The most comfortable
The most boring
The most interesting
The most expensive
The most dangerous
The most popular
The most common
The most generous
The most difficult
|We use more and most to make comparatives and superlatives for most two-syllable adjectives and all adjectives with three or more syllables.|
What is he like?
Active: he likes to play sports or do physical things.
Bright: he is intelligent.
Cunning: he uses his intelligence secretly/mysteriously to get what he wants.
Diligent: he is hardworking.
Extroverted: he is very outgoing. He likes to be the centre of attention.
Funny: he makes people laugh.
Generous: he likes to ‘give’ to help others.
Honest: he tells the truth.
Imaginative: he has a good imagination.
Jealous: (negative) he wants what other people have. He doesn’t like others to succeed
Kind: nice, gentle and helpful
Lazy: (negative) he doesn’t like to work or exercise. He’s happy doing nothing.
Moody: (negative) he often becomes angry and unfriendly because he is unhappy.
Naughty: (negative): usually for children) his behaviour is bad.
Optimistic: he is a positive person and positive about the future.
Pessimistic: he is a negative person. He thinks things will end badly. The opposite of optimistic.
Quiet: He doesn’t say much. He prefers to listen.
Rude: (negative) he is not polite and he offends people.
Sensible: he has good common sense and judgment.
Thoughtful: he carefully thinks about other people and how to help them.
Upbeat: he is positive and in a good mood.
Violent: (negative) he will hurt you. He is aggressive…so be careful!
Wonderful: he is great!
Xenophobic: he dislikes people from foreign countries. He is racist.
Youthful: he is young at heart.
Zany: he is a little crazy but in a fun way.